Journal of International Entrepreneurship,
Special Issue on Aspects of Innovation and International Entrepreneurship, June 2014, Volume 12, Issue 2
Editors: Birget Hagen, Stefano Denicolai and Antonella Zucchella
And no birds sing – reviving the romance with international entrepreneurship
Brendan Gray and Andrea Farminer
- This article contributes to the emerging debate over the nature and future directions of international entrepreneurship (IE). Our study extends the research of Jones et al. (2011) through a ‘review of the reviews’ of IE studies as well as a census of the articles published in the Journal of International Entrepreneurship (JIEn) between its inception in 2003 and the beginning of 2012. The results suggest relatively few studies focus on the nexus of international business and entrepreneurship (e.g. by investigating how innovative and entrepreneurial firms can internationalise rapidly). Although definitions of IE and INVs have become more ‘entrepreneurial’ over time, there has been a limited critique of the INV definitions of Oviatt and McDougall. We propose an updated definition of IE research that includes three elements that have been under-researched but which could help revive IE as a fruitful area of study: (1) clarification of the links between innovation, entrepreneurship and internationalisation, (2) greater emphasis on the nexus of international entrepreneurship and (3) a better understanding of the dynamic aspects of international new venture development, including networking, organizational life cycles and business model development.
What happens to international new ventures beyond start-up: An exploratory study
Romeo V. Turcan and Anita Juho
- Since its inception, research in international entrepreneurship has focused mainly on how and why international new ventures internationalize early on. To date, there has been hardly any research regarding the issue of continuing corporate growth in such ventures beyond their start-up phase or initial internationalization. Theoretically, we ground our study within the dynamic capabilities view of the firm and through an inductive theory building research explore how and whether international new ventures made-it beyond the start-up phase, aiming to generate early theoretical constructs to guide international entrepreneurship research in this substantive area. Grounded in data, we develop the following constructs related to made-it points: strategic experimentation, tensions in organizational gestalt, and legitimacy lies. To get to a made-it point, entrepreneurs experiment with their venture at several levels: organizational, business model, and operational. These experimentation efforts are fueled by tensions that exist in the organizational gestalt, such as ownership structure, business proposition to the market, and product development process. To legitimate themselves and their venture in the stakeholders’ eyes, entrepreneurs may tell legitimacy lies. We maintain that international new ventures do not reach a made-it point if they only manage to develop substantive capabilities to produce desired outputs at various levels within the venture but fail to create dynamic capabilities to change and reconfigure existing substantive capabilities.
Internationalization through business model innovation: In search of relevant design dimensions and elements
- Internationalization through business model innovation involves the creation, or reinvention, of the business itself. This paper aims to integrate basic insight from the literature on business model innovation, internationalization of the firm, international entrepreneurship, and global marketing into a conceptual model. Our model illustrates that internationalization through business model innovation includes design dimensions, which are domestic or globalized in upstream production as well as in downstream markets. The outcome of this paper is four international business model types each with a specific resource allocation for dealing with differences across geographical locations and entry mode elements. We address the interrelation of these dimensions and elements in firms’ international activities.
International network management for the purpose of host market expansion: The mediating effect of co-innovation in the networks of SMEs
- Research shows that innovation facilitates internationalization and that the customer network is an important source of technical and market knowledge. Yet, little is known about how co-innovation within a business relationship with a key international customer relates to international network management and international growth beyond the focal business relationship. The paper contributes to international entrepreneurship research by investigating (1) international business relationship learning mechanisms that reinforce co-innovation within a dyadic business relationship with a key customer (2) and the link between co-innovation outcome in the business relationship and international network management for purposes of foreign market expansion beyond the dyadic business relationship. Three hypotheses were developed and tested on a sample of 188 internationalizing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) using linear structural relations (LISREL) structural equation modeling. The analysis shows that an SME’s (i) awareness of a customer’s complementary knowledge and (ii) innovation-oriented customer relationships leads to increased co-innovation within a dyadic business relationship with a key customer. Moreover, successful co-innovation with a key customer increases the likelihood that the focal SME will attempt at international network management by drawing on the key customer as a bridge to new customers and suppliers on the foreign host market. The findings provide a link between innovation within a dyadic business relationship and international network management for the purpose of foreign market expansion into the wider network on the host market. The findings hence contribute to our understanding of the mediating role of co-innovation in the internationalization process of SMEs.
Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs’ involvement in internationalization and innovation: Three Canadian cases
Tiia Vissak and Xiaotian Zhang
- In international entrepreneurship literature, entrepreneurs moving across borders have received less attention than other entrepreneurs. Also, only scant attention has been paid to immigrant entrepreneurs’ contributions to their organizations. This paper aims to contribute to the emerging international immigrant entrepreneurship literature by studying Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs’ roles in their firms’ international and innovative activities in Canada, China, and other countries. It is based on three cases of Chinese entrepreneurs who established businesses in Canada. We conclude that these immigrants’ experience of doing business in China and Canada, their network relationships and knowledge of these markets quickened their firms’ internationalization considerably. Moreover, these firms became active in product or service innovation as the case immigrants also involved other immigrants and locals. Consequently, immigrant entrepreneurs should actively use their connections both in their new country of residence and also in their previous home country, but to become even more successful, they should also reach beyond their ethnic ties.