About Us

ie-scholars.net is a virtual community for scholars interested in International Entrepreneurship (IE). It facilitates sharing of resources, expertise and knowledge on a global scale. Our hope is that this community will accelerate the development of ideas and approaches to key theoretical, methodological and empirical issues in IE.

ie-scholars.net was initially supported by with funding from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Knowledge Cluster program. It is currently supported by the Wendy Gillespie Center for Advancing Global Business (CAGB) at San Diego State University (SDSU).

The online community is managed by Martina Musteen at the Fowler College of Business at San Diego State University.

We have three types of community building activities:

  1. Fostering and accelerating research. Providing bibliographies and other research tools, building databases, aiding new scholars, and mentoring graduate students.
  2. Knowledge mobilization and dissemination. Exploring models of IE education, curriculum development, and helping transfer knowledge to interested policy-makers and entrepreneurs.
  3. Community growth and enhancement. Extending and diversifying the network, engaging scholars in research and mobilization activities, enhancing the annual conference and awards to recognize excellence in research.


Website Manager

  • Martina Musteen, Fowler College of Business, San Diego State University.

What is IE?

IE sits at the intersection of two areas (international business and entrepreneurship) and labeling itself as its own field of research is still relatively new and still evolving. Only recently have we seen IE starting to generate substantial enough numbers of researchers, interest and understanding that it is being more recognized by the broader community as being identified as its own research focus. Although a number of publications began to emerge in the late 1980’s, it was a 1994 article in the Journal of International Business Studies by Ben Oviatt (then of Georgia State University) and Patricia McDougall (now of Indiana University) that many would cite as the beginning of formally identifying the field of study.

Nevertheless, establishing the parameters of IE is challenging, not the least because both parent disciplines (IB and entrepreneurship) overlap with a number of different areas (e.g. strategy, innovation). One’s perspective on IE is also influenced by training. For example, members of ie-scholars.net have backgrounds in (e.g.) international business, management, economics, marketing, strategy or entrepreneurship.

Perhaps the most cited definition is from McDougall and Oviatt (2000) in the Academy of Management Journal where IE was defined as: …a combination of innovative, proactive and risk-seeking behaviour that crosses national borders and is intended to create value in organizations with the field including …research on such behaviour and research comparing domestic entrepreneurial behaviour in many countries? (McDougall and Oviatt, 2000: 903).

Interestingly, scholars in IE argue that comparisons of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs between countries misinterpret the generally accepted view of IE meaning entrepreneurial business that cross borders. As a consequence, they focused on one aspect of the McDougall and Oviatt (2000) definition, broadening it to allow for both forward (e.g., exporting) and backward (e.g., importing) internationalization along the value chain, and also activities that create or maintain (e.g., outsourcing to remain competitive in a home market) or adding value along or across the chain (H. Etemad, ie-scholars discussion 2008). They also tried to make the final definition more concise and adding an outcome or value. The last iteration was: International entrepreneurship is the creation of economic value through cross-border entrepreneurial activity.


ie-scholars.net provides our subscribed members with a bi-weekly newsletter detailing the latest news, posts and events relating to International Entrepreneurship. If you are interested, sign up below.

What's New

New IE Articles — June 2024

Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal – Volume 17, Issue 3, pg. 802-829, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.1474 Business modeling under adversity: Resilience in international firms Galkina,

Read More »