Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice (2014, 38, 2, 255-290)

On Cultural and Macroeconomic Contingencies of the Entrepreneurial Orientation–Performance Relationship

Saadat Saeed, Shumaila Y Yousafzai and Andreas Engelen

The relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and firm performance is among the best-researched topics in entrepreneurship research. These studies have been conducted in various national contexts. While a first meta-analysis by Rauch et al. finds no significant difference between EO’s effects based on the continent in which the firm is based, the present study considers how national cultural and macroeconomic drivers impact the EO–performance relationship. Building upon 177 studies with data from 41 countries, the meta-analysis consolidates this literature stream, contributing to the evidence-based entrepreneurship research.

International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal (2014, 10, 2, 253-276)

The determinants of venture creation time: a cross-country perspective

Kausta Misra, Esra Memili, Dianne H Welsh and Shyamalendu Sarkar

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of macro-institutional and macro-non-institutional factors on the new venture creation time across emerging as well as developed economies in Europe using panel data from 2003 to 2006 in 15 emerging and developed countries. This paper finds significant relationships between the venture start-up time and institutional factors that include lending interest rates, start-up procedures, and taxation and one non-institutional factor, GDP per capita. Additionally, we found differences in the factors between emerging and developed countries. Institutional factors, such as start-up procedures and trade opportunities, are important determinants of new venture creation time in emerging countries, consistent with the findings of recent studies. To encourage business formation, policy makers may need to revise policies concerning these factors which can facilitate or restrict new venture formation. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.


Journal of International Business Studies (advance online publication, March 20, 2014; doi:10.1057/jibs.2014.11)

Internationalization strategy, firm resources and the survival of SMEs in the export market

Sui Sui and Matthias Baum

Does “born-global” internationalization enhance or threaten a firm’s chances for survival in the export market? Despite the ongoing debate about born-global firms, we know little about what drives their survival in the export market. In particular, different theories yield conflicting predictions regarding whether born-global internationalization is superior or inferior to born-regional internationalization or gradual internationalization. Analyzing a longitudinal data set (from 1997 to 2005) of 1959 newly established Canadian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), we show that no single strategy is superior per se but that internationalization strategy moderates the relative importance of resources to SMEs’ survival abroad. Although resources are important for the survival of all SMEs, the relative importance of slack resources and innovation resources are most important for born-global firms followed by born-regional firms, and are the least important for gradual internationalizers.


Small Business Economics (2014, 43, 1, 101-117)

Entrepreneurs’ creativity and firm innovation: the moderating role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy

Branka Ahlin, Mateja Drnovsek and Robert D Hisrich

There are several studies in entrepreneurship investigating determinants of innovation outcomes in SMEs. Although entrepreneurs’ entrepreneurial creativity is often seen as a prerequisite, previous research indicates it is not an exclusive determinant of innovation. We use theoretical logics of social cognitive theory and innovation theory to develop a conceptual model of entrepreneur’s creativity, self-efficacy, and innovation outcomes. The model is then tested on a large sample of small and medium firms from two distinct economies: the United States and Slovenia. Empirical findings partially support the proposed moderation effects of entrepreneurial self-efficacy, but with the same variations between countries. The implications of these results in relation to entrepreneurship theory and practice are discussed.