International Marketing Review — Volume 36(6), pp 830-851

Gradual Internationalization vs Born-Global/International new venture models

Justin Paul, Alexander Rosado-Serrano

During the last two decades, studies on the theoretical models in the area of international business (IB), such as gradual internationalization and the born-global firms, have gained the attention of researchers. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the studies on the process of internationalization (Gradual Internationalization vs Born-Global/International new venture models) to identify the research gaps in this area and to prepare a future research agenda. Systematic literature review method was employed for this review. The authors highlight the findings from prior studies, compare and contrast salient characteristics and features, based on the articles published in journals with an impact factor score of at least 1.0, and provide directions for research. The authors find that there are several areas that were under-explored in prior research. There is a great potential for theoretical extension and theory development in this field as it covers the tenets of four subjects: IB, marketing, strategic management and entrepreneurship.

Asia Pacific Journal of Management—Volume 36(3), 615–659

The impact of Founder’s human capital on firms’ extent of early internationalisation: Evidence from a least-developed country

Farhad Uddin Ahmed, Louis Brennan

This study addresses the impact of the principal founder’s general and specific human capital factors on the extent of the internationalisation of early internationalising firms originating from a relatively low-tech and labour-intensive industry in a least-developed country. We engage in quantitative analysis using data drawn from the Bangladeshi apparel industry. Our results reveal direct and indirect effects of specific human capital factors on the extent of a firm’s early internationalisation. However, contrary to the extant findings for developed and advanced-emerging economies, general human capital factors, namely the founder’s higher educational qualifications and international experience, are not found to be significant determinants of early internationalisation. Although human capital theory is used as a key theoretical framework, our study also draws on several other schools of thought, including the resource-based view, social networking theory and the learning perspective. The findings of our study provide evidence of the synergistic effects originating from the founder’s specific human capital factors. In particular, we find that resources, learning and social network ties derived from specific human capital factors influence the extent of a firm’s early internationalisation. Our findings are also consistent with the revisited Uppsala model in so far as they relate to the importance of knowledge and relationships prior to the establishment of focal firms. The implications of our findings for national and enterprise development policies are also considered.

European Journal of International Management – Volume 13(4), 435-453

Organisational innovativeness of international new ventures: evidence from Swedish firms

Jan Abrahamsson; Vladimir Vanyushyn; Håkan Boter

This paper scrutinises how and for what purpose international new ventures (INVs), of various formation types and at different development stages, innovate organisational structures and routines in comparison to other internationally active firms in Sweden. We show that INVs place more emphasis on reorganising their external relationships and primarily aim their reorganisation efforts at furthering their ability to enhance innovative output. Coupled with the fact that INVs report higher rates of new-to-market innovations than other internationalised firms, we conclude that INVs retain their innovative focus over time and, irrespective of their formation type, continuously advance their networking capabilities. We propose that dynamic innovation-advancing relational capability is a characteristic that is unique to the INVs as a group of firms.

Small Business Economics – Volume 53(2), 431–458

Entrepreneurial ecosystem conditions and gendered national-level entrepreneurial activity: a 14-year panel study of GEM

Diana M. Hechavarría, Amy E. Ingram

Scholars note the importance of the entrepreneurial ecosystem in promoting new venture activity. Yet to date, limited focus has been given to its impact on female venturing. Accordingly, our study investigates if the entrepreneurial ecosystem influences the prevalence of male and female entrepreneurship over time. We analyze the effect of entrepreneurial ecosystems in 75 countries between 2001 and 2014 on the rates of entrepreneurship for men and women using aggregate data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Survey and National Expert Survey. Findings indicate that the prevalence in entrepreneurship is highest for women when the entrepreneurial ecosystem features low barriers to entry, supportive government policy towards entrepreneurship, minimal commercial and legal infrastructure, and a normative culture that supports entrepreneurship. Conversely, we find that prevalence rates for men are highest when there is supportive government policy but weak government programs aimed towards business creation.