Journal of International Marketing – Volume 26, Issue 4, pp. 18-37

The Interface of International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research: Review, Synthesis, and Future Directions

Man Yang, Peter Gabrielsson

There is no intensive review available of research at the interface of international marketing and entrepreneurship. This article systematically logs and organizes the subject matter and provides research suggestions. An organizing framework with three main dimensions—international marketing, the nature of marketing, and entrepreneurship—guides the literature review, which relies on a full search of articles relevant to international marketing and entrepreneurship published in academic journals over the past two decades (1997–2016). The study adopts a qualitative research approach to analyze 169 articles that meet the definitions of both international marketing and entrepreneurship research. Nine research types emerge at the intersection of international marketing and entrepreneurship research, and the study examines the theoretical and empirical trends of each type. A promising avenue for future studies would be cross-cultural comparative research on the individual–opportunity nexus in marketing across countries. More mixed-method and longitudinal research designs are also welcomed. The authors conclude by offering suggestions for future interdisciplinary research.

International Business ReviewAvailable online 15 November 2018.

The earliness of exporting and creeping sclerosis? The moderating effects of firm age, size and centralization

Alfredo D’Angelo, Trevor Buck

By using a sample of 644 manufacturing firms in four EU countries and five regions, we investigate the earliness/exporting relationship. Firstly, we examine the firm’s ability to retain LAN over time as it gets older and bigger. Secondly, we examine the role played by the firm’s decision-making structure. Our results reveal that exporting sclerosis does set in, as age and size of the firm significantly and negatively affect the earliness/exporting relationship. In addition, however, we find that centralization plays a role in the sclerotic effects of size (though only weakly for age), exacerbating their moderating effects on the earliness/exporting relationship. Our study claims to contribute to internationalization research by advancing the idea that LAN is not path-dependent but subject to liabilities. Beyond age and size, we add the more nuanced “liability of centralization” to boundary conditions for retaining LAN. Theoretical and managerial implications emerge.

International Marketing Review – Volume 35, Issue 6, pp. 890-913.

International new ventures market expansion through collaborative entry modes: A study of the experience of Indian and British ICT firms

Pushyarag N. Puthusserry, Zaheer Khan, Peter Rodgers 

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role that different collaborative entry modes play in how international new ventures (INVs) expand into international markets. The paper’s arguments are based on the INVs and social network literatures. In order to investigate the entry modes adopted by British and Indian small and medium information and communication technology (ICT) firms into each other’s markets, the paper outlines the results of qualitative semi-structured interviews with the key decision makers of ten British and ten Indian ICT firms. The findings contribute to the relatively under-researched area of how INVs enter foreign markets through collaborative entry mode. The findings suggest that INVs utilize both equity and non-equity modes of collaboration to expand their international operations. The findings also indicate that financial and non-financial resources always limit the market expansion and internationalization of such companies. Against this background, the INVs rely on building collaboration as one of the safest methods for foreign market expansion and successful internationalization. The collaborative entry mode is enhanced by entrepreneurs’ prior experience, social ties and knowledge of the foreign market. Set against the backdrop of an ever-increasing trend of internationalization of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), the paper offers important implications for understanding the conditions and factors behind the choice of collaborative and non-collaborative entry modes by INVs in particular and SMEs more broadly.

International Marketing Review – Volume 35, Issue 6, pp. 936-957.

Orientations and capabilities of born global firms from emerging markets

Mohammad Falahat, Gary Knight, Ilan Alon

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of entrepreneurial orientation and networking capabilities of born global firms in an emerging market on marketing strategy and foreign market performance.Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from 1,001 internationalized firms in an emerging market and to test seven hypotheses regarding the development of marketing strategy and foreign market performance. Marketing strategy was found to mediate the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and networking capability and foreign market performance, while foreign market performance is affected by entrepreneurial orientation and marketing strategy.Research on emerging market multinationals can be merged with that of born globals to augment our understanding of how early internationalizers from emerging markets perform in foreign markets. This study is among the few focusing on born globals in emerging markets, which face the difficulties of newness and limited resources, as well as characteristics of emerging markets, such as institutional voids.

Journal of International Marketing – Volume 26, Issue 3, pp. 70-93.

Opportunity Discovery and Creation as a Duality: Evidence from Small Firms’ Foreign Market Entries

Sylvie Chetty, Masoud Karami, Oscar Martín Martín

Little research addresses the likely enabling character of the discovery and creation of opportunities during the internationalization of small firms or how international opportunities are found and constructed during the process of foreign market entry (FME). This article therefore studies how opportunities become connected during small firms’ FME. By incorporating the concept of duality, this article conceives of the discovery and creation of opportunity as mutually enabling rather than opposed. From this duality perspective, opportunity discovery and creation facilitate each other during internationalization processes. This case study involves five high-tech Australian firms and 30 FMEs. The findings show that knowledge, networks, and capabilities enable opportunities in the FME context. International opportunities are connected and nested in different levels of generality and specificity. The FME opportunities may be based on opportunity embeddedness, because each opportunity has implications for other opportunities. The findings lead to a model and propositions to explain the relationships between opportunity discovery and creation in FME.