Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice – Volume 42(5), pg 734–768
International Entrepreneurship: A Meta–Analysis on the Internationalization and Performance Relationship
Christian Schwens, Florian B. Zapkau, Michael Bierwerth, Rodrigo Isidor, Gary Knight, Rüdiger Kabst
The article conducts a meta–analysis on the relationship between internationalization and firm performance in international entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence from 15,648 internationalizing entrepreneurial firms nested in 43 independent samples reveals a positive relationship between degree and scope of internationalization and performance. Knowledge intensity positively moderates the relationship between speed of internationalization and performance and negatively moderates the scope of internationalization and performance association. In contrast, we neither find a relationship between speed of internationalization and performance nor for knowledge intensity’s moderation on the degree of internationalization–performance association. Based on the findings, the article systematically points at future research opportunities.
Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice – Volume 42(5), pg 671–697
Slack, Innovation, and Export Intensity: Implications for Small– and Medium–Sized Enterprises
Andreea N. Kiss, Stephanie Fernhaber, Patricia P. McDougall–Covin
Despite the acknowledged importance of resources to small– and medium–sized enterprise (SME) internationalization, scholars have largely focused on the absolute level of resources rather than excess resources. Drawing on behavioral theory and literature on SME internationalization, we argue that SMEs intensify exports when pressured to find a way to survive at low levels of resource slack or when adequately prepared at high levels of slack. In contrast, moderate levels of slack result in a domestic focus by SMEs. We also suggest that for highly innovative SMEs, this pattern of effects changes. Analyses performed on a cross–country sample of 3,280 SMEs confirm our hypotheses.
International Small Business Journal — https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242618796145
Effectuation, network-building and internationalisation speed
Shameen Prashantham, Kothandaraman Kumar, Suresh Bhagavatula, Saras D. Sarasvathy
We extend research on the speed of new venture internationalisation by distinguishing between effectual and non-effectual (i.e. causal) network-building approaches, and conceptualising their differential effects on the dimensions of initial entry speed, country (i.e. international) scope speed and international commitment speed. Drawing upon the extant literature on internationalisation speed, network building and effectuation theory, we argue that an effectual approach to network-building is positively associated with initial entry speed and international scope speed, but negatively associated with international commitment speed, while a causal approach is negatively associated with initial entry speed and international scope speed, but positively associated with international commitment speed. In addition, we contribute to effectuation scholarship by elaborating on the causal–effectual distinction in network-building and offering internationalisation speed as an important and interesting outcome variable.