Journal of International Business Studies – Volume 47, Issue 9, 1135–1144
A note on the revisited Uppsala internationalization process model – the implications of business networks and entrepreneurship
- In their article from 2009, Johanson and Vahlne suggest a reformulation of the Uppsala internationalization process model by incorporating business network theory and entrepreneurship theory into the model. The present paper makes a critical examination of this reformulation. The overall conclusion is that several issues have to be addressed regarding the relationship between business networks and firms’ internationalization, the meaning of entrepreneurship as well as the possibility to combine business network theory and entrepreneurship theory in the Uppsala model before the full potential of such an incorporation can be realized.
Group & Organization Management – Volume 41, Issue 6, 786–822
Liabilities, Advantages, and Buffers of Newness: How Young Age Makes Internationalization Possible
Maija Renko, Sumit K. Kundu, Rodney Shrader, Alan L. Carsrud, Annaleena Parhankangas
- This article presents a conceptual discussion and a theoretical framework explaining how the liabilities of newness, which are traditionally thought of as disadvantages that young companies face, contribute to early firm internationalization. Through a systematic analysis of the liabilities that international new ventures face, as well as the liabilities and the advantages that a young age provides, we are able to integrate findings from the existing body of diffuse research on newness and internationalization, and develop propositions for future empirical research. Based on previous liabilities of newness and foreignness research, our study provides a novel theoretical model that explains early internationalization over and beyond existing internationalization models.