Management International Review – Volume 57 (4), 631–652

Mapping the Intellectual Structure of Research on ‘Born Global’ Firms and INVs: A Citation/Co-citation Analysis

Francisco García-Lillo, Enrique Claver-Cortés, Bartolomé Marco-Lajara, Mercedes Úbeda-García

  • The present research paper shows the results of an analysis of the existing literature on one of the topics that has sparked the most interest among scholars and researchers in the fields of international management and entrepreneurship: born global firms or international new ventures. Concretely, with the aim of identifying and visualising the intellectual structure of research on this phenomenon, a total of 124 research papers whose titles contain the above terms are analysed. The methodology is mainly based on the bibliometric techniques of document citation and co-citation analyses and the analysis of social networks.

Journal of International Entrepreneurship – Volume 15 (2), 121–144

From global start-ups to the borderless firm: Why and how to build a worldwide value system

Angela da Rocha, Vítor Corado Simões, Renato Cotta de Mello, Jorge Carneiro

  • Although the original concept of international new ventures included the geographic configuration of value activities, the subsequent development of the literature has gradually abandoned the concern about the geographic configuration of both input sourcing and output marketing to concentrate almost exclusively on the latter. Therefore, this paper argues that there is a need to re-focus the research so as to figure out how and why some companies are borderless. Borderless firms are defined as the result of the combination, early on, of geographically dispersed resources and capabilities, defying the home-base logic. A borderless firm presents the following characteristics (or a combination of them) from inception (or shortly thereafter): (i) value-added activities dispersed across different countries and regions; (ii) entrepreneurs not bounded by a home base; (iii) multinational founders and/or management teams; and (iv) a multinational workforce. To enquiry into this issue, the study uses five case studies of borderless firms. The results advance the understanding of the motives and processes behind the development, early on, of a borderless configuration of value activities

Journal of International Entrepreneurship – Volume 15 (2), 177–206

Turning point: when born globals enter post-entry stage

Rubina Romanello, Maria Chiarvesio

  • The literature on firms’ early internationalization includes a huge number of studies investigating the entry stage of companies, while works on the post-entry growth and survival have recently been increasing. In this context, this study aims to better explain which factors determine the evolution of born globals (BGs) during their lifecycles. The authors analyze the growth processes of six Italian manufacturing BGs at different stages of their development, with a particular focus on the transition of the venture from entry to the post-entry stage. The findings show that the entrepreneurial capabilities of the founders have a crucial role during the first international expansion of the companies. As BGs enter the post-entry phase, a trade-off emerges between entrepreneurial capabilities and some specific firm resources aimed at achieving the sustainable growth of the company. Moreover, the authors identify the existence of a turning point when companies switch from the entry to the post-entry stage. During this phase, entrepreneurs manage a process to transform their individual capabilities into an organizational knowledge base. Future research areas and managerial implications are discussed.

Journal of International Entrepreneurship – Volume 15 (2), 207–228

Differences in international opportunity identification between native and immigrant entrepreneurs

Evgueni Vinogradov, Eva Jenny Benedikte Jørgensen

  • The aim of this study is to understand more about how identification of international opportunities differs between native and immigrant entrepreneurs. Based on a survey of 116 immigrant and 864 native Norwegian entrepreneurs with newly registered firms, we show that immigrant entrepreneurs are more likely to identify international opportunities than native entrepreneurs are. We reveal important differences in the identification process between native and immigrant entrepreneurs. Whereas general human capital has a significant positive effect on international opportunity identification for native entrepreneurs, we cannot find the same effect among immigrant entrepreneurs. Moreover, although financial capital positively influences international opportunity identification among native entrepreneurs, the same effect is significantly negative among immigrant entrepreneurs. Based on these findings, we conclude that native and immigrant entrepreneurs do not utilise the same resources to identify international opportunities. This study contributes to the literature on international entrepreneurship by documenting significant differences in how native and immigrant entrepreneurs identify international opportunities. It also contributes to immigrant entrepreneurship literature by bringing the opportunity-based view of entrepreneurship into the field.